Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Week 13

Combining all circuit for final year project presentation.Below are the circuit that have in the project:

Monitoring battery level circuit

Solar charger circuit

Switching circuit

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Week 12

Finish construct the switching circuit

This the switching circuit that finish construct

Put the bulb to test it

For the function of the circuit,you can see video project...^^

Week 11

Nothing to do.

Sunday, April 8, 2012

Week 10

Calculation of Solar energy:
This the example of calculation for the solar energy that was estimate the value:

One solar panel of 150W/24V produce between 150W x 4h = 600 Wh and
150W x 6h = 900 Wh.
One battery of 12V/110Ah  has a capacity of 12V x 110Ah  = 1320 Wh
For technical reasons, it is not recommended to empty a battery more than 70%. The usable
capacity of this type of battery is around 924 Wh, what match to the produced electrical
energy of 600Wh to 900Wh.

We are offering 24V-systems, using 2 batteries with 12V/110Ah.
Using an inverter 24V to 230V connected to the batteries, it is easily possible to get a
power source of 230V, driving different types of electrical appliances like a fan, energy
saving lamps or a television.

There are different types of inverters. The type of inverter advised has an output of
pure sinus. Using them will avoid troubles that can occur on critical devices like television or
personal computers. If the inverter has a modified sinus output or (worst case) a rectangular
output, a significant part of the stored electrical energy will be wasted, and on long-term
running critical devices may damage.

With the stored power of 600 Wh to 900 Wh (one solar panel, see example above), it is
possible to use the following devices:
- 4 energy saving lamps 11W, time of use 4-6 hours (4x 11Wx 4h = 176 Wh)
- 1 fan 75W,    time of use 3-5 hours (1x 75Wx 3h = 225Wh)
- 1 television 100W,   time of use 2-3 hours (1x 100Wx 2h = 200Wh)
Total consumption = 601 Wh

So  recommend the usage of two solar panels to get a buffer capacity in case of less sun.

Sunday, April 1, 2012

Week 9

Calculation of wind turbines:

For this semester final year project,this wind turbines can't be done.Below are the calculation for wind turbines that was estimate the value.

If you have a small wind turbine with a blade diameter of 1 m (about 3 ft) and an operating efficiency of 20% at a wind speed of 6 m/sec (about 13.4 mph). Then, to calculate how much power the turbine can generate at this wind speed:
Rotor swept area: Area = Π × (Diameter/2)2 = 3.14 × (1/2)2 = 0.785 m2
Available power in the wind: Pwind= Air Density × Area × v3/2 = 1.2 × 0.785 × 63/2 = 101.7 watt
Then the power that can be extracted from the wind assuming 20% turbine efficiency is:
Pturbine=0.20 × 101.7 = 20.3 watts
If this ran continuously for a year (about 8,750 hours) then it would produce: 20.3 watts × 8,750 hours = 177,625 watt-hours, or about 177 kWh in a year.
Used the density of air at sea level, which is about 1.2 kg/m3

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Week 8

Construct changeover circuit:

This is for the first time construct the switching circuit with my friend azizul and his uncle,angah (that the name we call).This switching circuit to change over when the voltage drop or high voltage.The picture that show not a complete circuit since it not construct yet when this picture taken.

This happen when the me done a wrong connection wire life and neutral (short circuit). So when do the circuit,make sure the connection right before try it.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Week 7

Test the previous circuit that construct:

The circuit test:

The input voltage for the solar panel that we get and test:

We change the analog multimeter to digital multimeter since it more easy to read.And we can't continue the test since rainy day.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Week 6

Construct another circuit: solar charger circuit

For this circuit,the battery has be change to 12v 4.5 Ah and variable resistor to 100k ohm.

Sunday, March 4, 2012

Week 5

Learn more about power supply

A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.
Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from:
  • Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage.
  • Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.
  • Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators.
  • Solar power.
A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. Examples of the latter case include the low voltage DC power supplies that are part of desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.
Commonly specified power supply attributes include:
  • The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load.
  • How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions.
  • How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources).

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Week 4

Test the previous circuit:

This circuit  function well but we can't use this circuit because it can't recharge the battery.Beside this circuit is only to test our knowledge about the solar.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Week 3

Presentation for final year project

On 16th february 2011,presentation for final year project was held for let the student present about the progress of their final year project at Research Postgraduate Studies (RPS) Meeting Room, Level 6 .There are three lecture was invited to assess the student who present their final year project progress.The purpose of the presentation is to identify the FYP current status and most importantly to have some external inputs & ideas towards the project. Main area to be discussed is Project Ideas, Concept, Project Status, Results (if any..),and Planning.

Friday, February 10, 2012

Week 2

Test the solar circuit that got from internet

Test the circuit that I got from the internet.(http://electroschematics.com/6057/solar-birdhouse-light-circuit/). The circuit name is Solar Birdhouse.To understand how the solar circuit work,I constructing the simple solar Birdhouse.Below this is the picture circuit that I construct:

The circuit above using the battery 12V/4.5Ah to turn on it.But this time I not try the solar panel since I constructing the circuit at night.The problem that I got when testing the circuit is

a) The LED became dim when I put more the 4 LED.

b) The LED that I buying from the store not working well.

c) The multimeter broke

This is the BirdHouse circuit diagram:

Later I will testing the solar panel since it still night .

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Week 1

Buy the component

Go to jalan pasar to buy component for solar circuit.

                                                             Solar circuit component receipt

These are some parts that I buy for test the solar circuit:

Specification of a typical 18V/5W solar panel:

Maximum Power (Pm) :5W
Working Voltage (Vmp):18V
Working Current (Imp) :0.28A
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) :21.2V

                12V/4.5Ah rechargeable battery